# [080] Nonextensive formalism and continuous Hamiltonian systems

Jean Pierre Boon and James F. Lutsko, "Nonextensive formalism and continuous Hamiltonian systems", *Physics Letters A*, **375**, 329 (2011) __http://jimlutsko.github.io/files/Lutsko_Boon_PLA_2010.pdf__

## Abstract

A recurring question in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is what deviation from standard statistical mechanics gives rise to non-Boltzmann behavior and to nonlinear response, which amounts to identifying the emergence of “statistics from dynamics” in systems out of equilibrium. Among several possible analytical developments which have been proposed, the idea of nonextensive statistics introduced by Tsallis about 20 years ago was to develop a statistical mechanical theory for systems out of equilibrium where the Boltzmann distribution no longer holds, and to generalize the Boltzmann entropy by a more general function Sq while maintaining the formalism of thermodynamics. From a phenomenological viewpoint, nonextensive statistics appeared to be of interest because maximization of the generalized entropy Sq yields the q-exponential distribution which has been successfully used to describe distributions observed in a large class of phenomena, in particular power law distributions for q > 1. Here we re-examine the validity of the nonextensive formalism for continuous Hamiltonian systems. In particular we consider the q-ideal gas, a model system of quasi-particles where the effect of the interactions are included in the particle properties. On the basis of exact results for the q-ideal gas, we find that the theory is restricted to the range q < 1, which raises the question